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Prevalence of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Events in Patients Prescribed Clozapine: A Retrospective Observational, Clinical Cohort Study

[ Vol. 10 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Natalie Hyde, Seetal Dodd, Kamalesh Venugopal, Christa Purdie, Michael Berk and Adrienne O’Neil   Pages 125 - 131 ( 7 )

Abstract:


Background: The efficacy of clozapine for the treatment of schizophrenia has been demonstrated. However, a range of adverse events have been associated with its use. To date, there remains a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of clozapine-induced cardiovascular (CV) and parameters associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, alongside associated risk factors for their development.

Methods: An observational, clinical cohort study design of 355 clozapine patients who were enrolled in the Barwon Health Clozapine Program at Geelong Hospital, Victoria, Australia, between 2008-12. Medical records were accessed retrospectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine associations with adverse event(s).

Results: Older age of commencement with clozapine was consistently associated with increased risk of CV abnormalities, with the exception of tachycardia where older age was protective (Odds Ratio [OR]: 0.97; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]: 0.95, 0.99). Males had significantly greater odds of most metabolic disturbances with the exception of being obese (BMI: ≥30 OR: 0.45; 95% CIs: 0.24, 0.85). Older age of commencement was a significantly associated variable with High- Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (OR: 1.03; 95% CIs: 1.01, 1.07) and fasting glucose (OR:1.04; 95% CIs: 1.02, 1.07). An increase in BMI was consistently and significantly associated with all metabolic events.

Conclusion: Male patients who are obese at any point during treatment and older at treatment commencement may be the most vulnerable to adverse CV and metabolic events. While future studies using a matched case-control design may be required to verify these findings, we recommend that treating clinicians consider these risks when assessing patient suitability to clozapine therapy.

Keywords:

Adverse event, cardiac, cardiomyopathy, clozapine, metabolic, myocarditis, prevalence, schizophrenia.

Affiliation:

IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Kitchener House, Geelong Hospital, Ryrie St, Geelong, Victoria, 3220, Australia.



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