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Detection of Poor Quality Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) Medicines Marketed in Benin Using Simple and Advanced Analytical Techniques

[ Vol. 12 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Achille Yemoa*, Vedaste Habyalimana, Jeremie K. Mbinze, Victoria Crickboom, Benjamin Muhigirwa, Agnes Ngoya, Pierre-Yves Sacre, Fernand Gbaguidi, Joelle Quetin-Leclercq, Philippe Hubert and Roland D. Marini   Pages 178 - 186 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: Poor quality antimalarial medicines still represent a threat to the public health, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa which bears a disproportionate share of the global burden of malaria. It is essential and urgent to strengthen mechanisms against counterfeit medicines. One of the approaches is regular market surveillance through quality controls.

Methods: 12 samples of artemether/lumefantrine were collected from formal and informal drug sellers in Cotonou (Benin) as well as additional other similar samples from Rwanda (13 samples) and from D.R. Congo (9 samples). Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) as classical and simple identification test was applied in Benin while an analytical chemistry laboratory in Belgium (ULg, Pharmacy Department) was asked for further analyses with HPLC and Raman spectroscopy using a developed and validated HPLC method for rapid analysis of artemether/lumefantrine.

Results: The results obtained in Belgium confirmed the lack of the two active ingredients in the suspected sample of ACT medicine from Benin whereas some samples from Rwanda and D.R. Congo were found to present risk of substandard drugs either for under-dosing or over-dosing.

Conclusions: Counterfeit/falsified of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) medicines are really scourge that needs to be fought through strong collaboration between public health authorities and appropriate quality control laboratories.

Keywords:

Poor quality medicines, artemether/lumefantrine, TLC, HPLC, raman spectroscopy, ACT.

Affiliation:

Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Analyse des Medicaments (LCAM), Faculte des Sciences de la Sante, Ecole de Pharmacie, Universite d'Abomey Calavi, Cotonou, Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Liege (ULg), Liege, Laboratory of Drug Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Faculte de pharmacie et des sciences biomedicales de l'UCL, Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL) Bruxelles, Medical Services Department, Rwanda Social Security Board (RSSB), Pharmacies Division, Kigali, Laboratory of Drug Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Liege (ULg), Liege, Laboratoire de Chimie Pharmaceutique Organique, Faculte des Sciences de la Sante, Ecole de Pharmacie, Universite d'Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Pharmacognosy Research Group, Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Bruxelles, Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Liege (ULg), Liege, Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, University of Liege (ULg), Liege

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