Dhruvkumar M. Patel, Mukundkumar V. Patel*, Sanjay L. Rajput and Kamal H. Sharma Pages 171 - 175 ( 5 )
Introduction: 36 out of 100 cases of retrosternal chest pains are due to oesophageal pathologies, and Pill-induced Oesophagitis (PIO) is one of them. PIO can present as retrosternal chest pain associated with various Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and require a high index of suspicion. PIO is a clinical diagnosis; and oesophagogastroscopy is required for confirmation of the diagnosis, to find out complications of PIO and to rule out other oesophageal disorders. Our aims of the present study were to study clinical profile, risk factors and endoscopic features of PIO.
Materials and Methods: We have done a cross-sectional study of 1000 patients with acute retrosternal chest pain, and all patients of suspected upper gastrointestinal system involvement were subjected to oesophagogastroscopy. Patients having a history of pill ingestion followed by retrosternal chest pain with GI symptoms of less than 10 days duration and having typical endoscopy findings like kissing ulcer, multiple small discrete ulcers or erosion of esophagus were diagnosed as PIO after excluding other oesophageal pathologies.
Results and Conclusion: Among 1000 retrosternal chest pain patients, 450(45%) cardiovascular, 255(25.5%) respiratory, 248(24.85%) upper GI and 47(0.47%) had other system involvement. Among 248 GI patients, the frequency of symptoms was as follows: Pinpoint localized odynophagia (8.46%), non-localised odynophagia (12.09%), nausea (62.09%), vomiting (44.35%), dysphagia (3.62%), dyspepsia (13.70%) and hematemesis (0.8%). PLO, dysphagia, and hematemesis were significant symptoms of PIO (p<0.05). Endoscopic findings suggestive of PIO such as kissing ulcer, multiple small discrete ulcers, oesophageal erosions were observed in 91.30%, 47.83%, and 34.78% patients, respectively. Involvement of the middle third of esophagus was present in 74.19% and the lower third in 25.81% patients. Most of the patients with PLO had kissing oesophageal ulcer seen on endoscopy (pvalue =0.0002). The habit of consuming pill with less than 100 ml of water and consumption of night pill dose 10 minutes or less before sleeping were observed as significant risk factors for PIO (p value<0.05). PLO is a newly established and highly specific symptom of PIO of our study and it matches with kissing ulcer of the esophagus by endoscopy.
Retrosternal chest pain, pill-induced oesophagitis, pinpoint localized odynophagia, oesophagogastroscopy, kissing ulcer of the esophagus, gastrointestinal symptoms.
Smt. N.H.L. Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, Dhruv Healthcare Multi-Speciality Hospital, Ahmedabad, Siddhivinayak Hospital, Ahmedabad, U.N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad