Tobias P H Nissen*, Henrik Vorum and Kristian Aasbjerg Pages 17 - 31 ( 15 )
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema can be a potentially sightthreatening disease if not treated correctly. It is directly correlated to the duration of diabetes and how well managed the patients' diabetes is. In the last 15 years, the treatment of diabetic eye disease has taken a quantum leap in methodology due to the group of biological agents named antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF). The introduction of the first biological agent has revolutionized the treatment, not only in diabetic eye disease but also across most inflammatory eye diseases, causing leakage of fluid from the blood vessels i.e., in age-related macular degeneration. The availability of these biological agents, despite their considerable costs, have significantly improved the outcomes measured in visual acuity compared to more traditional treatments of diabetic retinopathy in the form of sole laser treatment and glycemic control. The agents demonstrate a favorable safety profile, but if the rarest and most severe side effects occur, there is a potential total loss of vision.This review aims to make an overview of the current pharmaceutical therapeutic options in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. This includes laser therapy, intravitreal steroids, and a primary focus on intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factors.
Diabetic macular edema, anti-VEGF, laser, corticosteroids, safety profile, treatment.
Department of Ophthalmology, Aalborg University Hospital Hobrovej 18-22, 9000Aalborg, Department of Ophthalmology, Aalborg University Hospital Hobrovej 18-22, 9000Aalborg, Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Blvd. 161, 8200Aarhus