Jim Philip* and Cornelius James Fernandez Pages 207 - 216 ( 10 )
Meglitinides are a group of oral hypoglycemic medications currently approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two meglitinide molecules, Repaglinide and Nateglinide, are presently in use. Repaglinide is preferred because of its superior glycemic efficacy. They have modest efficacy with a mean decrement of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ranging between -0.2 to -1.50% with individual therapy. Additional HbA1c reduction can occur with combination therapy with other oral hypoglycemics. This class of drugs is effective in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. It is also useful in patients with variable meal timings, especially in the elderly, and in patients with renal failure. There are a dearth of long-term studies on meglitinides to assess cardiovascular outcomes or mortality in T2DM, although the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose ToleranceOutcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) study showed no difference between Nateglinide and placebo with regard to the core composite cardiovascular outcomes. Based on a PubMed literature search using key words: ‘meglitinides’, ‘repaglinide’, ‘nateglinide’, ‘HbA1c’, ‘glycated haemoglobin’, ‘cardiovascular safety’, ‘cardiovascular events’, ‘cardiovascular outcome trials’, ‘type 2 diabetes mellitus’ and heart failure, and combining the search terms using Boolean operators ‘AND’, ‘OR’ and ‘NOT’ as needed we compiled current evidence for use of these oral hypoglycemic agents in clinical use. This article is an attempt to review the efficacy and cardiovascular (CV) safety of Meglitinides to help clinicians to use this class of oral hypoglycaemic agents prudently.
Meglitinides, repaglinide, nateglinide, cardiovascular outcome trial (CVOT), heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, NMC Speciality Hospital, Al Ain, Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Pilgrim Hospital, PE21 9QS, Boston