Rithika Mary Koshy, Cornelius James Fernandez* and Koshy Jacob Pages 129 - 141 ( 13 )
A large proportion of persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not reach the glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) target of < 7% (53 mmol/- mol), with an increasing proportion of them being overweight or obese. In both T1DM and T2DM, there is accelerated gastric emptying and postprandial hyperglucagonemia. Furthermore, insulin therapy itself is associated with risk of hypoglycemia and weight-gain both of which are barriers to achieving good control. Medications which can achieve significant HbA1c and weight reduction associated with an ability to delay gastric emptying and suppress the glucagon secretion with minimal/ no hypoglycemia are of particular interest as an adjuvant to insulin. A synthetic amylin analogue, pramlintide is a drug with above mentioned properties. Other medications with similar properties are glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs). In this article, we will review the efficacy of pramlintide when given with insulin in improving HbA1c, weight, and cognition with- /without GLP-1 RAs as well as its cardiovascular (CV) safety.
Amylin analogues, pramlintide, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular safety, postprandial hyperglucagonemia, glycosylated haemoglobin, pramlintide.
Department of Medicine, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, BR6 8ND, Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Pilgrim Hospital, Boston, PE21 9QS, Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Eastbourne Hospital, Eastbourne, BN21 2UD